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    Rosika Schwimmer

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    September 11, 1877 – August 3, 1948

    Rosika Schwimmer was a journalist, a feminist, a pacifist, a suffragette. She represented Hungary at the International Congress of Women and was one of the first female ambassadors in history, to Switzerland in 1918.

    Then, the Hungarian republic fell, and Schwimmer was forced to emigrate to the United States. Her problems started in this land of democracy and opportunity.

    Schwimmer's leftist views and ideas of internalization were seen as a threat. (Her Jewishness and atheism didn't help.) Schwimmer was branded a spy and a communist. (She was neither.) She was blacklisted from journalism and lecturing. When Schwimmer applied for American citizenship, she was denied.

    The crux of the problem lied with Schwimmer's refusal to answer in the affirmative to bearing arms for America. Even when explained that the question was purely symbolic (especially for an older woman), she refused to do so. Her case went all the way to the Supreme Court.

    So, did the great American justice system decide in Schwimmer's favor? Absolutely not. The court ruled that pacifists couldn't become citizens. Schwimmer remained stateless for the rest of her life.

    It's great that today's America has made such great strides to become a more inclusive and open-minded society, isn't it?

    Verdict: Jew.

    January 6, 2020

    See Also

    Betty Friedan

    Emma Goldman

    Rosa Luxemburg

    Pauline Newman

    Clara Zetkin
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